These resources are referenced throughout the Value and Impact Toolkit

Aabø, S. (2009), Libraries and return on investment (ROI): a meta-analysis, New Library World,  110 (7/8): 311-324.

Arts Council England (with BOP consulting). (2014), Evidence Review of the Economic Contribution of Libraries, Arts Council England, Manchester.

Ayre, S., Barbrook, J., Engel, C., Lacey, P., Phul, A., Stevenson, P., and Toft, S. (2015). Measuring the impact of information skills training: a survey of health libraries in England, Health Information & Libraries Journal, 3 (1):  50-60.

Bawden, D. et al (2009), Understanding our value; assessing the nature of the impact of library services, Library and Information Research,  33 (105): 62-89.

Booth, A., Sutton, A. and Falzon, L. (2002), Evaluation of the Clinical Librarian Project: University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield.

Brettle, A. (2007), Evaluating information skills training in health libraries: a systematic review, Health Information and Libraries Journal, 24 (Supp 1): 18-37.

Brettle, A., Maden-Jenkins, M., Anderson, L., McNally, R., Pratchett, T., Tancock, J., Thornton, D. and Webb, A. (2010) Evaluating clinical librarian services: a systematic review , Health Information & Libraries Journal28 (1): 3-22.

Brettle, A.J., Maden, M. and Payne, C. (2015). Evaluating the impact of clinical librarian services in the North West , Project Report, University of Salford, Salford. Available from:

Brettle, A.J., Maden, M. and Payne, C. (2016). The impact of clinical librarian services on patients and health care organisations. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 33(2): 100-120

Brettle, A. and Maden, M. (2016) What evidence is there to support the employment of professionally trained library, information, and knowledge workers?  A systematic scoping review of the evidence. London: CILIP.  Available from

Dalton, M. (2012). Key performance indicators in Irish hospital libraries: developing outcome based metrics to support advocacy and service delivery, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 7(4): 82-95

Dunne, M. (2014), Library value and impact: taking the step from knowing it to showing it, Library and Information Research, 37 (116): 41-61.

Fan, W. and Yan, Z. (2010), Factors affecting response rates of the web survey: A systematic review, Computers in Human Behavior, 26 (2): 132-139.

Grad, R., Pluye, P., Granikov, V., Johnson‐Lafleur, J., Shulha, M., Sridhar, S. B., Moscovici, J. L.,Bartlett, G., Vandal, A. C., Marlow, B. and Kloda, L. (2011), Physicians’ assessment of the value of clinical information: Operationalization of a theoretical model., Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology  62 (10): 1884-1891.

Hulme, C. (2006), Using cost effectiveness analysis; a beginners guide, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 4 (1): 7-29.

Jemison, K., Poletti, E., Schneider, J., Clark, N., Stone, D.R. (2009). Measuring return on investment in VA libraries, Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 9(4): 379-390.

Kloda,, L., Koufogiannakis,, D. and Brettle, A.J .(2014). Assessing the impact of evidence summaries in library and information practice, Library and Information Research, 38 (119): 29-46

Linn Jr, M. (2009), “Cost-benefit analysis: a disparagement of its misuse and misexplanation”, Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, The, 22 (3): 82-85.

Linn, M. (2010), Cost-benefit analysis: a primer” Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, The,  23 (1): 31-36.

Markless, S. and Streatfield, D. (2006). Evaluating the impact of your library.  London: Facet.

Marshall, J. G. (1992). The impact of the hospital library on clinical decision making: the Rochester study, Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 80 (2): 169-178.

Marshall,  J. G., Sollenberger, J., Easterby-Gannett, S., Morgan, L. K., Klem, M. L., Cavanaugh, S. K., Oliver, K. B., Thompson, C. A., Romanosky, N. and Hunter, S. (2013), The value of library and information services in patient care: results of a multisite study, Journal of the Medical Library Association, 101 (1): 38-46.

McKnight, S. and Berrington, M. (2008), Improving customer satisfaction: changes as a result of customer value discovery, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 3 (1): 33-52.

McKnight, S. (2009), Bridging the gap between service provision and customer expectations, Performance Measurement and Metrics, 10 (2): 79-93.

Pan, D. and Fong, Y. (2010), Return on investment for collaborative collection development: a cost-benefit evaluation of consortia purchasing, Collaborative Librarianship, 2 (4): 183-192.

Pan, D, Wiersma, G., Williams, L. and Fong, Y. S. (2013), More than a number: unexpected benefits of return on investment analysis, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39 (6): 566-572.

Pluye, P., Grad, R., Stephenson, R. and Dunikowski, L. (2005), A new impact assessment method to evaluate knowledge resources  AMIA (American Medical Informatics Association) 2005 Symposium Proceedings: 609-613.

Pluye, P. and Grad, R. M. (2006), Cognitive impact assessment of electronic knowledge resources: a mixed methods evaluation study of a handheld prototype, American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium Proceedings 2006: 634-638.

Pluye, P., Grad, R. M., Mysore, N., Knaapen, L., Johnson-Lafleur, J. and Dawes, M. (2007), Systematically assessing the situational relevance of electronic knowledge resources: a mixed methods study, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 14 (5): 616-625.

Pluye, P., Grad, R. M., Shulha, M., Granikov, V. and Leung, L. H. (2011), Using electronic knowledge resources for person-centered medicine–I: An evaluation model, International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 1 (2): 385-394.

Pluye, P., Grad, R., Repchinsky, C., Jovaisas, B., Johnson‐Lafleur, J., Carrier, M. E., Farrell, B., Rodriguez, C., Bartlett, G., Loiselle, C. and Légaré, F. (2013), Four levels of outcomes of information‐seeking: A mixed methods study in primary health care,  Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology,  64 (1): 108-125.

Pluye, P., Granikov, V., Bartlett, G., Grad, R. M., Tang, D. L., Johnson-Lafleur, J., … Doray, G. (2014). Development and Content Validation of the Information Assessment Method for Patients and Consumers. JMIR Research Protocols3(1), e7.

Poll, R. (2012), Can we quantify the library’s influence? Creating an ISO standard for impact assessment, Performance Measurement and Metrics, 13 (2): 121-130.

Poll, R. (2014), Did you enjoy the library? Impact surveys in diverse settings, Performance Measurement and Metrics, 15 (1/2): 4 – 12

Sidorko, P. E. (2010), Demonstrating RoI in the library: the Holy Grail search continues”, Library Management, 31 (8/9): 645-653.

Streatfield, D. and Markless, S. (2009), What is impact assessment and why is it important?, Performance Measurement and Metrics, 10 (2): 134-141.

Tenopir, C., King, D., Mays, R., Wu, L. and Baer, A. (2010), Measuring value and return on investment of academic libraries. Serials: The Journal for the Serials Community, 23 (3): 182-190.

Tessler, A. (2013) Economic valuation of the British Library.  Retrieved from

Turner, J. (2009), Demonstrating Library Value: the use made of information provided by an NHS library service, and how that use relates to organisational goals.  Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, unpublished Master’s dissertation.

Urquhart, C.J. and Hepworth, J. B. (1995a), The value of information supplied to clinicians by health libraries: devising an outcomes-based assessment of the contribution of libraries to clinical decision-making, Health Libraries Review, 12 (4): 201-213.

Urquhart, C.J. and Hepworth, J. B. (1995b),  The Value of Information Services to Clinicians: a toolkit for measurement. DILS, University of Wales Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth.

Urquhart, C.J. and Hepworth, J. B. (1995c), The Value to Clinical Decision Making of Information supplied by NHS Library and Information services. British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby.

Urquhart, C.J. and Hepworth, J. B. (1996), Comparing and using assessments of the value of information to clinical decision making, Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 84 (4): 482-489.

Urquhart, C., Durbin, J. and Turner, J. (2005), The North Wales Clinical Librarian Project. Final Project Report. Department of Information Studies, Aberystwyth University, 2005. Accessible  at: .

Urquhart, C.,, J., Durbin, J. and Ryan, J. (2006) Evaluating the contribution of the clinical librarian to a multidisciplinary team, Library and Information Research, 30 (94): 30-43.

Urquhart, C., Turner, J., Durbin, J. and Ryan, J. (2007), Changes in information behavior in clinical teams after introduction of a clinical librarian service, Journal of the Medical Library Association, 95 (1): 14-22.

Urquhart, C., Thomas, R., Ovens, J., Lucking, W. and Villa, J. (2010), Planning changes to health library services on the basis of impact assessment,  Health Information and Libraries Journal, 27 (4): 277-285.

Urquhart, C. (2012), “Quantitative approaches”, in Grant, M., Sen, B. and Spring, H. (Eds.), Research, Evaluation and Audit, Facet Publishing, London: 121-144.

Urquhart, C. (2015). Reflections on the value and impact of library and information services. Part 1, Performance Measurement and Metrics, (16)1: 86 – 102.

Urquhart, C. and Turner, J. (2016). Reflections on the value and impact of library and information services. Part 2: impact assessment, Performance Measurement and Metrics, (17)1: 5-28.

Weightman, A., Urquhart, C., Spink, S. and Thomas, R. (2009), The value and impact of information provided through library services for patient care: developing guidance for best practice. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26 (1): 63-71.

Yeoman , A , Cooper , J , Armstrong , C , Fenton , R , Lonsdale , R , Spink , S , Urquhart , C , Thomas , R , Barker , A & Light , A (2003). Critical incident technique and explicitation interviewing in studies of information behaviour.  Library and Information Science Research, 25(1): 63-88 . , 10.1016/S0740-8188(02)00166-4

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