Abput change management.

Organisational change is something which all of us are familiar with. Healthcare is system which is constantly evolving and changing to meet new challenges and incorporate new evidence, new technologies, and more efficient ways of working.

Change is intended to lead to improvements but  can also lead to uncertainty, anxiety, and disruption in the shorter term.  Change management is a way of providing a structure for the changes being implemented to minimise any disruption and introduce new ways of working in a planned and systematic way. 

CILIP’s Professional Knowledge and Skills Base (PKSB) defines change management as:


Understanding the critical factors in leading change or an organisational development programme. Facilitating efficient knowledge transfer and communication skills to ensure colleagues and stakeholders understand the rationale for change and that they are engaged and aligned with the solution.
CILIP PKSB 12.12 Change Management

Successful change management needs the support of senior leadership within a team or organisation but also requires collaboration between all employees or members of the team.

It is a process which requires investment in terms of planning time, effective communication, monitoring and adaptation as changes are made. There are a number of models, tools, and techniques which have been developed to assist with change management.

Kotter's 8 Step Process for Leading Change

Harvard Business School’s Professor John Kotter developed his eight stages of change management based on his research of dozens of organisations going through change. His key steps in the change process are :

  • Increase Urgency 
  • Build a guiding team 
  • Develop the vision 
  • Communicate for buy-in 
  • Empower action 
  • Create short term wins 
  • Don’t let up 
  • Make change stick 

Edwards Deming’s Plan, Do, Check, Act Cycle

The Plan, Do, Check, Act Cycle is a method for continuous improvement. It allows the trial of innovations which can then be assessed, adapted, improved and adopted where appropriate. 

Plan : Identify the aims and objectives and what actions are required to achieve them 

Do : Implement the actions identified in step one. 

Check : Monitor and reflect on the outcomes and impacts of the actions   

Act : Using the learning from the “check” phase the process is improved and modified to avoid repeating mistakes and embed actions which lead to positive outcomes. 

Jeff Hiatt’s Prosci ADKAR model

Based on Jeff Hiatt’s studies of over 700 organisations, this is a model which examines the five steps required for a successful change. It takes a more personal perspective looking at change from the perspective of individual employees.

Participants are assessed on a scale of 1-5 against each of the criteria and must score a three on a criteria before progressing to the next theme. It recognises that successful organisational change is dependent on individual change and the focus is therefore a personal one aimed at addressing and removing any barriers and obstacles at an individual level.

The five themes are :

  • Awareness of the need for change 
  • Desire to participate and support in the change 
  • Knowledge of how to change and what to do during and after the change 
  • Ability to achieve or implement the change  
  • Reinforcement to ensure the results of a change continue 

Wessex Methodology for Spreading Innovation at Pace and Scale

The Wessex Academic Health Science Network has developed an evidence based, systematic approach to accelerating the spread and adoption of best practice across their region.

The guidance includes four stages, assessing the spread of adoption, decide whether and how to spread, develop a spread plan and implementation and sustainability.

Within these four stages are six steps :

  • Assessing potential to spread 
  • Assessing the potential for adoption 
  • Deciding whether and how to spread an innovation 
  • Developing a network plan 
  • Communications Plan 
  • Implementation and Sustainability Plan 

Spread and adoption: guidelines (wessexahsn.org.uk)



Cameron, E and Green, M (2019) Making Sense of Change Management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change (5th ed), Kogan Page 

Comprehensive coverage of the models, tools and techniques of successful change management with a focus on individual, team and organizational change [Last checked: 02/11/22] 

Brettle, A. and Urquhart, C. (eds) (2012) Changing Roles and Contexts for Health Library and Information Professionals, Facet Publishing 

Examines the evolving role of health professionals and explores the role they play in the context of where they work. [Last checked: 02/11/22] 

Rowley, J. (2010) Being an Information Innovator, Facet Publishing 

This groundbreaking book is the first to discuss and apply the rhetoric and theories of innovation and entrepreneurship in information organizations. [Last checked: 02/11/22] 

O’Connor, S. (2017) Library Management in Disruptive Times: 
skills and knowledge for an uncertain future, Facet Publishing 
Library Management in Disruptive Times identifies the key skills and attitudes needed by the library leaders of today and tomorrow and delivers a balanced view of the future of the profession [Last checked: [Last checked: 02/11/22] 


Journal of Change Management 

Publishes peer-reviewed case studies, reviews, conceptual contributions and empirical research of the highest quality [Last checked: 03/11/22] 

Journal of Organizational Change Management 

Publishes papers which offer a detailed analysis and discussion on the philosophies and practices which underpin successful organizational change [Last checked: 03/11/22] 

HILJ Virtual Issue: Transforming your service: the right evidence at the right time and place 

To mark the 2016 Health Libraries Group (HLG) Conference, Health Information and Libraries Journal (HILJ) has published a virtual issue on the topic of “Transforming your service: the right evidence at the right time and place”. The virtual issue, edited by Anthea Sutton, contains articles and features published in HILJ between 2014-2016, on the theme of service transformation, and the related key strategic themes outlined in Knowledge for Healthcare (KFH). [Last checked: 03/11/22] 


CIPD: Change Management 

Requires registration for free account to view full resources. [Last checked: 02/11/22] 


The structure of the NHS in England  

This Commons Library briefing provides an overview of the funding and accountability relationships within this NHS in England, and an introduction to the roles of key organisations including NHS England, NHS Improvement and the Care Quality Commission. This briefing also highlights some key health policy issues, including patient safety, funding, and the integration of health and social care. [Last checked: 03/11/22] 

Page last reviewed: 2 November 2022